【Stock Management】- Definition & impacts



定义: 过多的材料(原材料,工程在库,成品在库)超出了要求的数量。

影响: 延长了交货时间,捆绑了流动资金,人力,运输,潜在的品质问题,掩盖了问题。

原因: 不清楚的或没有标准,错误的机器设置,担心用完(以防万一),等等。


Definition: There are too much material (raw material, WIP, finished products ) in excess of the required quantity

Impact: Extend the delivery times, tied the liquidity, manpower, shipping, potential quality problems, it covers the problem

Reason: Unclearly standard or no standard, wrong machine set up, just in case and so on


库存浪费的危害

◆“库存是万恶之源” ,所有改善行动皆会直接或间接地和消除库存有关。

①产生不必要的搬运、堆积、放置、防护处理、找寻等浪费

②使先进先出的作业困难

③损失利息及管理费用

④物品的价值会减低,变成呆滞品

⑤占用厂房空间、造成多余工场、仓库建设等

◆因库存造成无形损失,绝不亚上述有形损失,库存会隐藏问题,如果能不断地被发现解决,则利益便会不断地产生

1、没有管理的紧张感,阻碍改进:

2、库存量一多,因机械故障、不良产品所带来的不利后果不能马上显现出来,因而也不会产生对策。

3、由于有了充足的库存,出现问题时可以用库存先顶上,问题就可以慢慢解决甚至不用解决,最起码是被掩盖住了,不急迫了,不会被上级追究了,于是乎本部门的工作成绩就出来了。

“Inventory is the root of all evil” and all improvement actions are directly or indirectly related to the elimination of inventory.

Unnecessary handing, accumulation, placement, protective treatment and search waste

Make it difficult for FIFO

loss of interest and administrative expense

The value of the article will be reduced, become dead stock

Occupy the shop floor space, resulting the construction of shop floor and warehouse

Intangible losses are much higher than the tangible loss, lean producers believe that inventory will hide problems, while ”problems” are regarded as treasure in lean production. If problems can be found and solved continuously, then benefits will be generated continuously.

Lack of management tension and block improvement

Because of high inventory, there are no immediate countermeasures for the problems caused by machine breakdown/defects…

Because of the sufficient inventory, all the problems are hidden already. When a problem happens, no need to solve and become not urgent. The supervisor will not blame anybody because of this.

“合理的库存”是制造业的传统观念和方法,为了避免可能造成生产停滞,库存被视为理所当然。实际上,库存是由于企业管理混乱,物流不畅造成的,同时,它本身又是制造浪费的一大根源。有库存就需要建造仓库作为存放场所,然后需要工作人员使用搬运机械设备将物品搬运至仓库。库存的浪费与企业降低成本的目标背道而驰,是绝不允许的。

实践证明,精益生产最大的价值是消减库存,精益生产消减库存的价值远远大于单纯的实施一套ERP/MRP系统,原因在于,精益生产在于对于流程的在改造,不断地打破现状。但是实施ERP/MRP是一个不断修改调整软件系统,让其不断适应工厂现状的过程。

“Reasonable inventory is a traditional concept and method for a manufacturing industry” In order to avoid the stagnation of the production, inventory is taken for granted. While lean producers believe that inventory is caused by disordered management and poor logistics. Meanwhile, it is itself a major source of manufacturing waste.

If there is inventory, a warehouse needs to be built as a storage place and workers need to move the goods by machine. Lean production aims to reduce costs as one of the goals, inventory waste contrary to this, is not allowed.

Practice has proved that the biggest value of lean production is inventory reduction and the value of lean production inventory is far greater than the implementation of a set of ERP/MRP systems. The reason is that lean production is to transform the process and the constantly break the status.

However, implementing ERP/MRP is a process of constantly modifying and adjusting the software system to adapt the current situation of the factory.